General Relativistic Simulation

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign



We follow the collapse in axisymmetry of a uniformly rotating, supermassive star (SMS) to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in full general relativity. The initial SMS of arbitrary mass M is marginally unstable to radial collapse and rotates at the mass-shedding limit. The collapse proceeds homologously early on and results in the appearance of an apparent horizon at the center. Atlthough our integration terminates before final equilibrium is achieved, we determine that the final black hole will contain about 90% of the total mass or the system and have a spin parameter J/M2 ~ 0.75. The remaining gas forms a rotating disk about the nascent hole.

The following movies depict only the late-time results of the simulation. The movies begin at nearly the same time that the post-Newtonian simulation terminates. Thus, they begin where t/M = 30,360 and the central lapse is 0.3. Note that the collapse time, 30,360 M, is approximately 6 months for a 108 solar mass star, while the scene depicted here lasts 10 M, or approximately 80 minutes for such a star.

Density Plots

Fluid Flow: Lagrangian Particle Representation

Evolution of the Lapse

Final Black Hole Parameters

Scientific visualization by

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
last updated 3 Nov 03 by kkc
Center for Theoretical Astrophysics---University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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